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June 22, 2004

Rocket Fuel in Cows' Milk - Perchlorate: References

[1] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002. Perchlorate Environmental Contamination: Toxicological Review and Risk Characterization (External Review Draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. Washington,D.C. NCEA-1-0503.

[2] Massachusetts Department Of Environmental Protection (MADEP). 2004a. Perchlorate Toxicological Profile And Health Assessment (Final Draft). Office of Research and Standards. May 2004. Available at

[3] Massachusetts Department Of Environmental Protection (MADEP). 2004b. Interpretative Differences Between Massachusetts' and California's Perchlorate Health Assessments. MADEP Office of Research and Standards. May 2004. Available at

[4] Environmental Working Group (EWG). 2003a. Suspect Salads: Toxic rocket fuel found in samples of winter lettuce. Available at:

[5] Danelski, D, and Beeman, D.E. 2003. Growing concerns: While scientists debate the risks, a study finds the rocket fuel chemical in Inland lettuce. The Press-Enterprise. April 27, 2003. Available at

[6] Smith, P.N. and W.A. Jackson. 2003. Perchlorate uptake in plants and implications to ecological risk assessment. Presentation given at Tribal Water Conference, September 9-10, 2003 in Parker, Arizona. Available at

[7] U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (US ACOE). 2004. Bosque and Leon River Watersheds Study. US ACOE Fort Worth District. February 2004. Final Report. Available at

[8] Sanchez, C.A. n.d. Survey of lettuce for potential perchlorate accumulation. A Report Submitted to the Arizona Iceberg Lettuce Research Council. Available at

[9] Environmental Working Group (EWG). 2003b. Rocket Fuel in Drinking Water: New Studies Show Harm From Much Lower Doses. Available at

[10] Letter from Senators Barbara Boxer and Diane Feinstein to Bruce Alberts, President of the National Academy of Sciences. May 14, 2004. Press release and letter available at

[11] Kirk A., E. Smith, K. Tian, T. Anderson and P. Dasgupta. 2003. Perchlorate in milk. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37: 4979-4981.

[12] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2004. Public Health Goal for Perchlorate in Drinking Water. California Environmental Protection Agency. Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Section of OEHHA. March, 2004. Available at

[13] Bustillo, M. 2004. State Plans to Regulate Perchlorate; In a rebuff to the Pentagon, California weighs limits on the pollutant. Los Angeles Times. March 11, 2004.

[14] California Department of Health Services (CADHS). 2004. Perchlorate in California Drinking Water: Monitoring Update. Available at

[15] Imperial County Agricultural Commissioner. 2002. 2002 Agricultural Crop & Livestock Report. Available at

[16] California Food and Agricultural Code Section 14901.

[17] California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). 2003. SAFE: Safe Animal Feed Education Program. See CDFA presentation on SAFE available at

[18] United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). 1994-1996. Available at

[19] Argus Research Laboratories, Inc. 1999. Oral (drinking water) two-generation (one litter per generation) reproduction study of ammonium perchlorate in rats. Horsham, PA: Argus Research Laboratories, Inc.; protocol no. 1416-001. As cited in EPA 2002.

[20] Crofton, K. M. 2001. Revised analysis of the thyroid hormone data from the rat developmental "effects" study - Argus protocol 1416-003 [memorandum with attachments to Annie M. Jarabek]. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health Effects and Environmental Research Laboratory; December 14 (revised December 28). As cited in EPA 2002.

[21] van den Hove, M. F., C. Beckers, et al. 1999. Hormone synthesis and storage in the thyroid of human preterm and term newborns: effect of thyroxine treatment. Biochimie 81(5): 563-70.

[22] Pop V.J., Kuijpens J.L., van Baar A.L., Verkerk G., van Son M.M., de Vijlder J.J., Vulsma T., Wiersinga W.M., Drexhage H.A., Vader H.L. 1999. Low maternal free thyroxine concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy. Clin Endocrinol 50:149-155.

[23] Brechner, R. J.; Parkhurst, G. D.; Humble, W. O.; Brown, M.B.; Herman, W. H. 2000. Ammonium perchlorate contamination of Colorado River drinking water is associated with abnormal thyroid function in newborns in Arizona. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 42: 777-782.

[24] Schwartz, J. 2001. Gestational exposure to perchlorate is associated with measures of decreased thyroid function in a population of California neonates [thesis]. Berkeley, CA: University of California.

[25] Greer MA, Goodman G, Pleus RC, and Greer SE. 2002. Health effects assessment for environmental perchlorate contamination: The dose-response for inhibition of thyroidal radioiodine uptake in humans. Environ. Health Perspect. 110(9): 927.

[26] Rogers, Keith, 1998. Chemical's effect on crops worries tribes. Las Vegas Review-Journal. May 20, 1998.

[27] Susarla, S.; Bacchus, S. T.; Harvey, G.; McCutcheon, S. C. 2000. Phytotransformations of perchlorate contaminated waters. Environ. Technol. 21: 1055-1065.

[28] Nzengung, V. A. N.d. Laboratory characterization of phytotransformation products of perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchlorate. Final report. Athens, GA: University of Georgia, Department of Geology. As cited in EPA 2002.

[29] Jackson, A. 2003. Uptake and Accumulation of Perchlorate in Plants. Presentation at Region 9 EPA. April 17, 2003. Andrew Jackson is at the Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University.